Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever are serious illnesses.
most often in developing countries where sanitation is poor.
Typhoid fever is caused by eating foods or drinking beverages contaminated with the
bacteria. Contamination can be present in:
- Food or drinks handled by someone who is sick with typhoid fever
- Food or drinks handled by someone who has no symptoms but carries the bacteria
- Water or food contaminated by sewage
- Unpasteurized dairy products
- Unrefrigerated poultry products
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Factors that increase your risk of typhoid fever include:
- Not drinking boiled or bottled water
- Eating raw shellfish
- Eating fruits and vegetables that are raw or have been washed with contaminated water
- Living in, or recent travel, to a country with poor sanitation
- Decreased stomach acid, usually from taking acid reducing medications
Symptoms may include:
- Fever, often over a long period of time
- Severe headaches
- Abdominal pain
- Loss of appetite
- Rose-colored spots on the body
- Muscle pains
- Swelling of the neck glands, liver, or spleen
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Typhoid fever is usually diagnosed with a blood culture.
Typhoid fever is treated with antibiotics.
Typhoid fever spreads easily until it is treated. In a small number of cases, people may become typhoid carriers even after the illness has passed. People who are chronic carriers can shed the contagious bacteria in their stool or urine. This condition can be treated with antibiotics or, in unusual cases, surgery to remove the gall bladder.
Your doctor may also recommend medication to help reduce the fever. In general, rest and drink plenty of fluids.
There are two main ways to prevent typhoid fever:
Careful food monitoring in areas where typhoid fever is prevalent:
- Drink only bottled water or water that has been boiled for at least one minute. This includes ice.
- Eat foods while they are still hot. Ensure that they are thoroughly cooked.
- Avoid any raw fruits and vegetables that cannot be peeled.
- Avoid raw shellfish.
- Avoid unpasteurized dairy products.
- Vaccination— recommended if you are planning to visit a country where typhoid fever is prevalent.
Bhan MK, Bahl R, Bhatnagar S.
Typhoid and paratyphoid fever.
Lancet. 2005 Aug 27-Sep 2;366(9487):749-62.
Bui YG, Trépanier S, et al. Cases of
Malaria, Hepatitis A, and Typhoid Fever Among VFRs, Quebec (Canada).
Johnson KJ, Gallagher NM, et al. From
the CDC: New Country-Specific Recommendations for Pre-Travel Typhoid Vaccination.
J Travel Med. 2011;18(6):430-433.
Last reviewed June 2014 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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