As an active muscle, the heart needs a continuous supply of oxygen. The coronary arteries have the job of carrying oxygen to the heart. These arteries have a difficult job to do because they undergo intense compression every time the heart beats. This job becomes even more difficult when the arteries are damaged by
(commonly, though not quite accurately, called “hardening of the arteries”) in a condition called
coronary artery disease.
In coronary artery disease the passages inside the coronary arteries become narrowed by plaque deposits, which decreases blood flow. When the blood flow is decreased to a sufficient extent, pain caused by oxygen deprivation occurs. This pain is known as
angina pectoris. Angina tends to wax and wane, generally worsening with exercise.
A heart attack may occur after years of angina, or with no warning at all. Most heart attacks occur when a blood clot (thrombus) forms on the roughened wall of an atherosclerotic coronary artery. Such a blood clot may lead to a sudden and complete blockage of the artery. More rarely, a spasm of a coronary artery may cut off blood flow. In either case, the cells of the heart fed by that artery begin to die. The region of dead cells is called an infarct, leading to the technical name for a heart attack: a myocardial infarction (MI).
The classic symptom of a heart attack is intense, central chest pressure. Other common symptoms include: pain or heaviness in the left arm, nausea, shortness of breath, increased perspiration, and a feeling of impending doom. However, many people who have had an MI describe chest "discomfort," or pain in the jaw, teeth, arm, or abdomen. Women are more likely than men to feel pain in their backs. Often, symptoms come on gradually and are intermittent or vague. A quarter of patients—more often women and people with diabetes—experience no symptoms at all.
When a heart attack occurs, emergency treatment at a hospital can minimize the extent of permanent damage to the heart. “Clot busting” drugs, if given soon enough, can open the coronary arteries, allowing blood to flow again. Other methods of restoring blood flow include procedures known as angioplasty, stenting, and bypass surgery. The aim is to save those heart cells that are in danger of dying but are still hanging on to life. Recovery after a heart attack depends on the extent of heart damage. If only a small portion of the heart has died, or if it is in a relatively less important region, symptoms may be slight. More severe damage can cause the heart to pump improperly, leading to
congestive heart failure.
During the first several days following a heart attack, the heart has a tendency to lose its normal rhythm and fall into a dysfunctional pattern of beating that does not properly circulate blood. Treatment aimed to prevent or treat this condition, called an
arrhythmia, is conducted in a cardiac intensive care unit.
Long-term treatment to reduce the risk of heart attacks generally involves aspirin to prevent blood clots, as well as treatments to slow, stop, or reverse atherosclerosis. The latter is accomplished through the use of medications that keep cholesterol and blood pressure within normal limits, as well as by increasing exercise and improving other aspects of lifestyle.
The most important contribution natural medicine has to make to heart attacks lies in prevention, not treatment. Because heart attacks are, in almost all cases, caused by atherosclerosis, the natural treatments discussed in the
article are relevant to reducing heart attack risk.
In turn, atherosclerosis is accelerated by
high blood pressure
high cholesterol, and possibly by
high levels of homocysteine
in the blood. Natural treatments used for these conditions may very well be worth considering.
Natural therapies for high blood pressure and high cholesterol are generally less effective than the conventional approaches. If you have one or both of these conditions, and you wish to treat them with natural therapies, first consult with a physician to determine how long it is safe to experiment. If natural therapies have not controlled your condition within that time, it may be the better part of valor to use conventional therapies.
Several natural treatments have shown promise for use along with conventional treatment in the period following a heart attack. Note, however, that people who have recently had a heart attack should not use any herbs or supplements except under the supervision of a physician. Furthermore, none of these treatments can
for standard care; at most, they might be helpful if used in addition to it.
10) is thought to improve heart function. In a
double-blind trial, 145 people who had recently experienced a heart attack were given either placebo or 120 mg of CoQ
10 daily for 28 days.1
The results showed that participants receiving CoQ
experienced significantly fewer heart-related problems, such as episodes of angina pectoris or arrhythmia, or recurrent heart attacks.
taken in combination with the mineral
selenium has also shown promise for people who have survived a heart attack.2
The amino acid
L-carnitine has shown potential value during the first few weeks after an MI. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study that followed 101 people for 1 month after a heart attack found that use of L-carnitine, in addition to standard care, reduced the size of the infarct (area of dead heart tissue).5
Other complications of heart attack were reduced, as well. Similar benefits were also seen in a 1-year,
controlled study of 160 people who had just experienced a heart attack; however, because this study was not double-blind, its results are not reliable.6
(For information on why double-blind studies are so important, see
Why Does This Database Rely on Double-blind Studies?)
In the months following a severe heart attack, the heart often enlarges and loses function. L-carnitine has shown some potential for helping the first of these complications, but not the second. In a 12-month,
double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 472 people who had just experienced a heart attack, use of carnitine at a dose of 6 g per day significantly decreased the rate of heart enlargement.3 However, heart function was not improved. A 3-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 60 people who had just undergone a heart attack also failed to find improvements in heart function with L-carnitine.4
(Heart enlargement was not studied.)
Results consistent with those of the studies above were seen in a 6-month, double blind, placebo-controlled study of 2,330 people who had just had a heart attack.16
Carnitine failed to produce significant reductions in mortality or heart failure (serious decline in heart function) over the 6-month period. However, it did find reductions in early death. (Unfortunately, for statistical reasons, the meaningfulness of this last finding is questionable: it was a secondary endpoint rather than a primary one.)
Fish oil contains healthy fats in the omega-3 fatty acid category. Incomplete evidence suggests that fish oil supplements may help prevent heart attacks, as well as prevent sudden death after a heart attack.17, 23,29
This benefit may be due any one of a number of fish oil’s actions, including preventing dangerous heart arrhythmias and reducing heart rate
In one study, 432 people who had suffered a heart attack were given either garlic oil extract or no treatment over a period of 3 years.8
The results showed a significant reduction of second heart attacks and about a 50% reduction in death rate among those taking garlic.
Note: People who take aspirin to prevent heart attacks should not take garlic supplements, as the combination could lead to excessive bleeding. (See the full article on
for more information.)
Because of its purported ability to lower cholesterol,
red yeast rice
(made by fermenting a type of yeast called
Monascus purpureus over rice) had been studied in patients with heart disease. A double-blind study performed in China compared an alcohol extract of red yeast rice (Xuezhikang) against placebo in almost 5,000 people with heart disease.25
Over a 4-year study period, use of the supplement reportedly reduced
rate by about 45% as compared to placebo, and total mortality by about 35%. At least three other studies, all from this same original population of participants, have found similar results in diabetics with heart disease
26 and in patients with previous heart attack,27,28
with surprisingly large reductions in the rates of coronary events (eg, heart attack) and mortality. These levels of reported benefit, however, are so high and so similar as to raise questions about their reliability.
Antioxidant supplements help neutralize free radicals, which are dangerous, naturally occurring chemicals that may accelerate heart cell death following a heart attack (among their many other harmful effects). In a double-blind trial, people who had just experienced a heart attack were given either placebo or a mixture of antioxidants (
vitamin E, and
beta-carotene) for 28 days.9
The results indicated that use of antioxidants minimized the extent of heart cell damage.
magnesium is sometimes suggested for stabilizing the heart after a heart attack, but one study actually found a negative effect.10
In this 1-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 468 people who had just experienced a heart attack, use of a magnesium supplement at a dose of 360 mg daily failed to prevent heart-related events (defined as heart attack, sudden cardiac death, or need for cardiac bypass), and actually may have increased the risk slightly.
arginine has been proposed for aiding recovery from a heart attack. In one double-blind study, arginine did not cause harm, and showed potential modest benefit.21 However, in another study, arginine failed to prove helpful and possibly increased post-heart attack death rate.22
Other herbs and supplements sometimes said to be useful after a heart attack, but that lack reliable substantiation, include the following:
Evidence suggests that a program of intensive lifestyle modification, involving an extremely low-fat diet along with exercise and stress reduction, can actually reverse coronary artery disease in people who have had heart attacks, or are at high risk for it.11-13 It is not clear whether less ascetic approaches can achieve similar effects. However, there is evidence that less intensive low-fat and Mediterranean-style (low-fat plus high fish oil) diets can decrease the risk of recurrent heart attacks and similar cardiac events in previous heart attack sufferers.24
Some alternative medicine physicians recommend use of intravenous infusions of a chemical called ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in order to clear out the arteries of the heart, a method called
chelation therapy. This method is based on an outmoded understanding of atherosclerosis, and it is most likely ineffective.14,15
Numerous herbs and supplements may interact adversely with drugs used to prevent or treat heart attacks. For more information on these potential risks see the individual drug articles in the
section of this database.
Singh RB, Wander GS, Rastogi A, et al. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of coenzyme Q
in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
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Kuklinski B, Weissenbacher E, Fahnrich A. Coenzyme Q
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Iliceto S, Scrutinio D, Bruzzi P, et al. Effect of L-carnitine administration on left ventricular remodeling after acute anterior myocardial infarction: the L-Carnitine Ecocardiografia Digitalizzata Infarto Miocardico (CEDIM) Trial.
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Iyer R, Gupta A, Khan A, et al. Does left ventricular function improve with L-carnitine after acute myocardial infarction?
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Singh RB, Niaz MA, Agarwal P, et al. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of L-carnitine in suspected acute myocardial infarction.
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Davini P, Bigalli A, Lamanna F, et al. Controlled study on L-carnitine therapeutic efficacy in post-infarction.
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Bucher HC, Hengstler P, Schindler C, et al. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Am J Med. 2002;112:298-304.
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Dtsch Apoth Ztg. 1989;129(Suppl 15):16-17.
Singh RB, Niaz MA, Rastogi SS, Tastogi S. Usefulness of antioxidant vitamins in suspected acute myocardial infarction (the Indian experiment of infarct survival-3).
Am J Cardiol. 1996;77:232-236.
Galloe AM, Rasmussen HS, Jorgensen LN, et al. Influence of oral magnesium supplementation on cardiac events among survivors of an acute myocardial infarction.
Ornish D, Scherwitz LW, Billings JH, et al. Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease.
Ornish D. Avoiding revascularization with lifestyle changes: The Multicenter Lifestyle Demonstration Project.
Am J Cardiol. 1998;82:72T-76T.
Ornish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW, et al. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial.
Ernst E. Chelation therapy for coronary heart disease: An overview of all clinical investigations.
Am Heart J. 2000;140:4-5.
Knudtson ML, Wyse DG, Galbraith PD, et al. Chelation therapy for ischemic heart disease: a randomized controlled trial.
Tarantini G, Scrutinio D, Bruzzi P, et al. Metabolic Treatment with L-Carnitine in Acute Anterior ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction. A Randomized Controlled Trial.
2006 May 9. [Epub ahead of print]
Marchioli R, Barzi F, Bomba E, et al. Early protection against sudden death by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids after myocardial infarction: time-course analysis of the results of the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico (GISSI)-Prevenzione.
Calo L, Bianconi L, Colivicchi F, et al. N-3 Fatty acids for the prevention of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery: a randomized, controlled trial.
J Am Coll Cardiol.
Geelen A, Brouwer IA, Schouten EG, et al. Effects of n-3 fatty acids from fish on premature ventricular complexes and heart rate in humans.
Am J Clin Nutr.
Raitt MH, Connor WE, Morris C, et al. Fish oil supplementation and risk of ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation in patients with implantable defibrillators: a randomized controlled trial.
Bednarz B, Jaxa-Chamiec T, Maciejewski P, et al. Efficacy and safety of oral l-arginine in acute myocardial infarction. Results of multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled ARAMI pilot trial.
Schulman SP, Becker LC, Kass DA, et al. L-Arginine therapy in acute myocardial infarction. The Vascular Interaction With Age in Myocardial Infarction (VINTAGE MI) randomized clinical trial.
Yokoyama M, Origasa H, Matsuzaki M, et al. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis.
Tuttle KR, Shuler LA, Packard DP, et al. Comparison of low-fat versus mediterranean-style dietary intervention after first myocardial infarction (from The Heart Institute of Spokane Diet Intervention and Evaluation Trial).
Am J Cardiol.
Du BM, Lu ZL, Chen Z, et al. The beneficial effects of lipid-lowering therapy with Xuezhikang on cardiac events and total mortality in coronary heart disease patients with or without hypertension: a random, double-blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi.
Zhao SP, Lu ZL, Du BM, et al. Xuezhikang, an extract of cholestin, reduces cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes patients with coronary heart disease: subgroup analysis of patients with type 2 diabetes from China coronary secondary prevention study (CCSPS).
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol.
Ye P, Lu ZL, Du BM, et al. Effect of xuezhikang on cardiovascular events and mortality in elderly patients with a history of myocardial infarction: a subgroup analysis of elderly subjects from the
China Coronary Secondary Prevention Study. J Am Geriatr Soc.
Lu Z, Kou W, Du B, et al. Effect of xuezhikang, an extract from red yeast Chinese rice, on coronary events in a Chinese population with previous myocardial infarction.
Am J Cardiol.
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Am J Clin Nutr.
Last reviewed August 2013 by EBSCO CAM Review Board
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