This is a birth defect of the penis. The defect involves the urethra. The urethra is the tube that connects the bladder to the outside of the body so that urine can exit.
With hypospadias, the opening of the urethra develops on the underside of the penis. Normally, the opening is at the tip. Sometimes, other defects of the penis are also present. For example, the penis may have an abnormal downward curve. This is called
The Male Reproductive System
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Hypospadias occurs when the penis does not develop normally while the child is in the womb. This may happen when hormones do not stimulate the penis to develop normally. Often, the cause is unknown.
Risk factors include:
- Family history of hypospadias
Mother being older or having
in vitro fertilization
- Environmental exposures or fetal growth problems during the pregnancy
Symptoms may include:
- Opening of urethra is not at the tip—may be near the underside of the penis head or at the middle or base of the penis
- Downward curvature of the penis
- Abnormal spray when urinating
- Foreskin that only covers part of the head of the penis
This condition is usually diagnosed at birth. More tests may be done if your child has other abnormalities.
With mild forms, no treatment is needed. In severe cases,
is the only way to correct the defect. The surgery is done by a doctor called a pediatric urologist.
If the urethral tissues cannot be brought back together, tissue grafts are taken from the foreskin or inside of the mouth. These grafts are used to:
- Reconstruct the opening of the urethra
- Straighten a curved penis
Surgery is typically done when the child is 3-18 months old.
There is no known way to prevent this condition.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), National Guideline Clearinghouse. Hypospadias: guidelines in pediatric urology. AHRQ National Guideline Clearinghouse website. Available at:
http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=47872. Published March 2009. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Hypospadias. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 21, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Hypospadias: a birth defect of the penis. Healthy Children—Academy of Pediatrics website. Available at:
http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/genitourinary-tract/Pages/hypospadias-a-birth-defect-of-the-penis.aspx. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Last reviewed August 2014 by Adrienne Carmack, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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